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Angst, J., Gamma, A., Gastpar, M., Lepine, J.P., Mendlewicz, J., & Tylee, A. (2002).
Gender differences in depression. Epidemiological findings from the European DEPRES I and II studies. European Archives of Psychiatry and Clinical Neuroscience 252, 201–209.

Ayala, J. & Coleman, H. (2000). Predictors of depression among lesbian women. Journal of Lesbian Studies, 4, 71-86.

Blazer, D. G., Kessler, R. C., McGonagle, K. A., & Swartz, M. S. (1994). The presence and distribution of major depression in a national community sample: The National Cormorbidity Survey. American Journal of Psychiatry, 151, 979–986.

Cassano, P. & Fava, M. (2002). Depression and public health, an overview. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 53, 247-257.

Culbertson, F. M. (1997). Depression and gender: An international review. American Psychologist,52, 25–31.

Frone, M. R., Russell, M., & Barnes, G. M. (1996). Work-family conflict, gender, and health-related outcomes: A study of employed parents in two community samples. Journal of Occupational Health Psychology, 1, 57-69.

Jones, L., Scott, J., Haque, S., Gordon-Smith, K., Heron, J., Caesar, S., Cooper, C., Forty, L., Hyde, S., Lyon, L., Greening, J., Sham, P., Farmer, A., McGuffin, P., Jones, I., & Craddock, N., 2005. Cognitive style in bipolar disorder. British Journal of Psychiatry 187, 431–437.

Katon, W. & Ciechanowski, P. (2002). Impact of major depression on chronic medical illness. Journal of Psychosomatic Research, 53, 859-863.

Kessler, R. C. (2000). Gender differences in the prevalence and correlates of mood disorders in the general population. In M. Steiner, K. A. Yonkers, & E. Eriksson (Eds.), Mood disorders in women (pp. 15–33). London: Martin Dunitz.

Kessler, R. C., Chiu, W. T., Demler, O., & Walters, E. E. (2005). Prevalence, severity, and comorbidity of twelve-month DSM-IV disorders in the National Comorbidity Survey Replication (NCS-R). Archives of General Psychiatry, 62, 617-627.

Khan, A.A., Gardner, C.O., Prescott, C.A., & Kendler, K.S. (2002). Gender differences in the symptoms of major depression in opposite-sex dizygotic twin pairs. American Journal of Psychiatry 159, 1427–1429.

Kuehner, C. (2003). Gender differences in unipolar depression: an update of epidemiological findings and possible explanations. Acta Psychiatrica Scandinavica 108, 163–174.

Lisanby, S. H., Husain,  M.M., Rosenquist, P. B., Maixner, D., Gutierrez, R., Krystal, A., Gilmer,W., Marangell, L. B. , Aaronson, S., Daskalakis, Z. J., Canterbury,  R., Richelson,  E., Sackeim, H. A., & George, M. S. (2009). Daily left prefrontal repetitive transcranial magnetic stimulation in the acute treatment of major depression: clinical predictors of outcome in a multisite, randomized controlled clinical trial. Neuropsychopharmacology, 34, 522-534.

Marcus, S. M., Kerber, K. B., Rush, A. J., Wisniewski, S. R., Nierenberg, A.,
Balasubramani, G. K., Ritz, L., Kornstein, S., Young, E. A., & Trivedi, M. H. (2008). Sex differences in depression symptoms in treatment-seeking adults: confirmatory analyses from the Sequenced Treatment Alternatives to Relieve Depression Study. Comprehensive Psychiatry, 49, 238–246.

Marcus, S. M., Young, E. A., Kerber, K. B., Kornstein, S., Farabaugh, A. H., Mitchell, J., Wisniewski, S. R., Balasubramani, G. K., Trivedi, M. H., & Rush, A. J. (2005). Gender differences in depression: findings from the STAR*D study. Journal of Affective Disorders 87, 141–150.

Mayo Clinic. (2010, September). Depression in women: Understanding the gender gap. Retrieved March 1, 2011, from http://www.mayoclinic.com/health/depression/MH00035

McGrath, E., Keita, G.P., Strickland, B.R., & Russo, N.F. (Eds.). (1990). Women and
depression. Risk factors and treatment issues. Final report of the American Psychological Association’s National Task Force on Women and Depression. Washington, DC: American Psychological Association.

Merikangas, K. R. (2000). Epidemiology of mood disorders in women. In M. Steiner, K. A. Yonkers, & E. Eriksson (Eds.), Mood disorders in women (pp. 1–14). London: Martin Dunitz.

Middeldorp, C.M., Wray, N.R., Andrews, G., Martin, N.G., & Boomsma, D.I. (2006). Sex differences in symptoms of depression in unrelated individuals and opposite-sex twin and sibling pairs. Twin Research and Human Genetics 9, 632–636.

Moskvina, V., Farmer, A., Jones, I.R., Brewster, S., Ferrero, F., Gill, M., Jones, L.A., Maier, W., Mors, O., Owen, M.J., Perry, J., Preisig, M., Rietschel, M., McGuffin, P., Craddock, N., & Korszun, A. (2008). Sex differences in symptom patterns of recurrent major depression in siblings. Depress Anxiety, 25, 527-534.

Petronis, K. R. (1990). An epidemiologic investigation of potential risk factors for suicide attempts. Social psychiatry and psychiatric epidemiology, 25, 193-199.

Rapaport, M.H., 1995. Gender differences in outpatient research subjects with affective disorders: a comparison of descriptive variables. The Journal of Clinical Psychiatry 56, 67–72.

Reifman, A., Biernat, M., & Lang, E. L. (1991). Stress, social support, and health in married professional women with small children. Psychology of Women Quarterly, 15, 431-445.

Silverstein, B., 2002. Gender differences in the prevalence of somatic versus
pure depression: a replication. American Journal of Psychiatry 159, 1051–1052.

Smith, D.J., Kyle, S., Forty, L., Cooper, C., Walters, J., Russell, E., Caesar, S., Farmer, A., McGuffin, P., Jones, I., Jones, L., & Craddock, N. (2008). Differences in depressive symptom profile between males and females. Journal of  Affective Disorders, 108, 279–284.

Tait, D. (1997). Stress and social support networks among lesbian and heterosexual women: A comparison study. Smith College Studies in Social Work, 67, 213-224.

Tsuang, M. T., Bar, J. L., Stone, W. S., & Faraone, S. V. (2004). Gene-environment interactions in mental disorders. World Psychiatry, 3, 73-83.

van Noorden, M. S., Giltay, E. J., den Holander-Gijsman, M. E., van der Wee, J. J. A., van Veen, T., & Zitman, F. G. (2010). Gender differences in clinical characteristics in a naturalistic sample of depressive outpatients: The Leiden Routine Outcome Monitory Study. Journal of Affective Disorders, 125, 116-123.

Weiss, E. L., Longhurst, J. G., Mazure, C. M. (1999). Childhood sexual abuse as a risk factor for depression in women: Psychosocial and neurobiological correlates. American Journal of Psychiatry, 156, 816-828.


Depression | Signs and symptoms of depression | Types of mood-related disorders | Depression in women | How do you know if you are depressed | What can you do if you are depressed | Getting professional help | Online Resources | References

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